Natural Resources

Air Quality

Virginia river falls in the autumn

Air Quality

Few things are as important as the quality of the air we breathe. Although a few Virginia regions have room for improvement, overall air quality in the Commonwealth has risen significantly in recent years.

Why is This Important?

Poor air quality causes increased deaths, especially among the very young and the very old. It reduces water quality, contributes to climate change, and damages forest resources, agriculture, buildings, and infrastructure. It also makes Virginia a less attractive place to live, do business in, or visit — factors that have consequences for both the economy and the quality of life in the Commonwealth.

How is Virginia Doing?

Ground level ozone (the main ingredient in smog) is a colorless gas formed by the reaction of sunlight with vehicle emissions, gasoline fumes, solvent vapors, and power plant and industrial emissions. Particle pollution is made up of particles found in soot, dust, smoke and fumes caused by burning coal, oil, diesel, and other fuels.

Air Pollution/Particulate Matter, by State. See text for explanation.

Virginia’s air quality has markedly improved in recent years. For example, residents' average exposure to fine particulates -- particles of dust, soot, aerosols, and dust fine enough to be inhaled -- has decreased every year over the past decade and more. For the fourth consecutive year, average exposure in Virginia for 2013 was 9.3 micrograms of fine particles per cubic meter -- lower than the United States average (10.3), although the state ranks just 25th nationally. Among peer states, Maryland (10.8), Tennessee (10.1), and North Carolina (9.6) all had higher average exposure levels in 2013. Wyoming (5.3) again had the lowest.

Virginia is within federal limits on air quality for all pollutants, with the exception of Northern Virginia, which sometimes exceeds ozone limits (ozone concentrations greater than 75 parts per billion) and the limits set for fine particulate matter. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency began using a more stringent standard for ozone performance in 2008.  

Exceedances of Ozone Standards in Virginia. See text for explanation.During the last decade, Virginia has significantly reduced the number of days when the ozone standard was exceeded, from 371 days per 3-year average for 2001-2003 to an average 75 days for 2010-2012. Among specific areas of the state, Northern Virginia continued to have the poorest air quality, with an average of 42 days exceeding the ozone standard over the same period (2010-2012).

What Influences Air Quality?

Heavy automobile use is one chief contributor to air pollution in the U.S. Increased efficiency of automobile engines, growth in the use of hybrid vehicles, and more use of alternative modes of travel can all contribute to better air quality. Similarly, wider use of "clean" energy sources for generating electricity and other needs can also have major impact. All have the attendant benefit of helping to reduce greenhouse gases, which contribute so heavily to climate change.

Certain emissions (from cars, energy plants, etc.) are subject to reductions or caps mandated by state, federal, and international laws and obligations. Regulations on emission rates need to be tightened periodically to maintain air quality when economic activity increases. Regulations limiting air pollutant emissions to a certain amount per year can maintain air quality at a given level even during periods of growth.

Global atmospheric circulation can cause emissions from other states and even other countries to affect Virginia.

What is the State's Role?

Air quality standards are established by the federal government and have been a significant factor in the steady improvements in air quality the U.S. has seen in recent decades. The Virginia Department of Environmental Quality is charged with enforcing these federal standards in the Commonwealth.

What Can Citizens Do?

Individuals and groups are strongly encouraged to be active participants in resource management. Reducing smog and particulate emissions through increased use of hybrid vehicles is just one place to start. To learn more about Virginia's environment, stewardship and public participation opportunities, and the partners engaged in conservation, please visit Virginia Naturally or the Virginia Conservation Network.

Page last modified March 31, 2014
Air Pollution/Particulate Matter, by State. Ozone Exceedences in Virginia.

State rankings are ordered so that #1 is understood to be the best.

Data Definitions and Sources

Virginia Department of Environmental Quality,

United Health Foundation, America's Health Rankings

Data collected from the EPA is used to estimate particulate exposure:
Population-weighted average exposure to fine particulates (2.5 micron and smaller) measured in micrograms of fine particulate per cubic meter.

"Air quality is improving in much of the U.S.," March 2010, Environmental News Network,

See the Data Sources and Updates Calendar for a detailed list of the data resources used for indicator measures on Virginia Performs.

At a Glance:
Air Quality in Virginia

Performance Trend:  Trend is improving!
State Influence:

National Rank: Although smog and other air pollution continues to improve, Virginia's overall air quality only ranks 25th best in the nation.

Virginia by Region: The Northern Virginia region is finally nearing the low particulate pollution and ozone levels enjoyed by other regions of the state.

Related Agency Measures
State Programs & Initiatives

The Department of Environmental Quality is the agency chiefly responsible for air quality in the state. The department:

  • issues air quality permits for factories and power plants
  • monitors and analyzes air quality data from across Virginia
  • works with federal and state authorities to promote clean air and enforce air quality regulations

Virginia Clean Smokestacks: In 2006 new legislation established a phased schedule for electricity-producing plants in Virginia to reduce their emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and mercury.

The Virginia Small Business Assistance Program offers small businesses free and confidential technical assistance on air quality and related environmental requirements to help them comply with the Clean Air Act and Virginia's air regulations.

Additional Information

To see how Virginia's localities stack up on air quality and a number of other health factors and outcomes, visit County Health Rankings.

The American Lung Association produces an annual "State of the Air" report, with report cards for individual states and many localities.

Fuel offers a wide range of info, tools and tips about improving vehicle fuel economy, including hybrid comparisons, tax benefits and fuel ratings.