Virginia depends on reliable, safe, and economical sources of energy to power its growing transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial needs. But continued reliance on energy imports and mounting concerns over carbon-based fossil fuels present new challenges. Virginia can encourage economic growth while preserving the environment by using energy more efficiently and by harnessing clean, alternative -- but still affordable -- energy sources.
Why is This Important?
Virginia consumed over 2,389 trillion BTUs of energy in 2011, a decrease from levels earlier in the decade. Since 2000, indigenous state energy resource production has decreased from 1,354 trillion BTU to 1,088 trillion BTU. As a result, the Commonwealth has been importing significant amounts of energy to meet its needs.
Investing in domestic energy production; energy efficiency and conservation practices; and clean energy sources can help close that gap and bring added economic benefits to the state. A recent study by the Amerian Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) estimates that increasing energy efficiency can result in a nearly 2-to-1 benefit-to-cost advantage -- and that these gains also produce new jobs.
How is Virginia Doing?
Virginia's energy use fell from an annual 346 million BTUs per person in 2005 to 308 million BTUs per person by 2009, due mainly to decreased economic activity. However, the rate of energy consumption decreased again to 295 BTUs per person in 2011. This rate is lower than the national average of 313 million BTUs and ranked Virginia 20th among U.S. states for energy consumption.
Virginia's per capita consumption was lower than Tennessee (344) but higher than Maryland (244) and North Carolina (267). Rhode Island had the nation's lowest energy consumption at 175 million BTUs consumed per capita in 2011.
Clean and Renewable Energy
Virginia's electric power industry generates electricity from a variety of clean and renewable energy sources, including nuclear energy and renewables such as hydropower, biomass, and landfill gas. Renewable energy production represented 5.1 percent of all electric generation in 2011, up from 3.7 percent in 2000. Virginia's rate of renewable power generation was lower than its peer states and the nation: Tennessee generated 13.1 percent of power from renewables, Maryland 8.1 percent, and North Carolina 5.3 percent. The national rate was 12.5 percent. Idaho, which generates 92.3 percent of its power with renewables, primarily hydropower, was the leading state.
Virginia generates a relatively low amount of energy-related greenhouse gases per capita from electrical power generation, transportation, heating/cooling, and industrial processes. Carbon dioxide constitutes over 80 percent of national greenhouse gases. In Virginia, it decreased from 17.2 metric tons per person in 2000 to 13.8 metric tons in 2010. This level was better than the national average of 18.2 metric tons per capita and ranked 15th best in the country. Virginia's carbon dioxide per capita emissions were lower than Tennessee (16.9) and North Carolina (15.1) but higher than Maryland (12.3).
What Influences Energy Use and Composition?
Levels of energy consumption are affected by a host of factors: energy prices, climate and weather, economic activity, personal income levels, resident population characteristics such as age and household size, home size, land use development patterns, industry mix, adoption of energy efficiency measures, government regulations and taxes, technology, and cultural/lifestyle factors. Since some sectors are more energy-intensive than others, state and regional differences in energy consumption per capita may partly reflect differences in industry composition.
Patterns of reliance on clean and renewable energy sources vary over time and region based on market prices of feedstock fuels, differences in natural resource endowments, presence of nuclear power plants, technological changes, and public policies. Most states, including Virginia, have Renewable Portfolio Standards which encourage power production from renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, and biomass.
While national energy policies have recently favored the adoption of renewable energy sources, the enormous growth in hydraulic fracturing to tap unexploited shale gas deposits has dramatically increased U.S. gas supplies, lowered natural gas prices, and spurred the construction of (or conversion to) gas-based power generation.
What is the State's Role?
Virginia plans to meet its energy needs by growing in-state energy production by 20 percent over the next 10 years. It has also established voluntary goals (by 2022) of :
- reducing electricity use through conservation practices and new efficiencies by an amount equal to 10 percent of 2006 use
- generating 12 percent of 2007 sales from renewable energy sources
Actions for achieving these energy goals are detailed in the Virginia Energy Plan. Consumer energy education is an important part of the strategy. The plan favors:
- increasing reliance on energy produced in Virginia
- promoting energy research and development among universities and private companies
- encouraging energy conservation and efficiency
- increasing the proportion of energy production from clean energy sources
Complementing these efforts are targeted financial incentives for adopting energy efficiency improvements, such as the annual energy sales tax holiday; various rebate programs run by the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy; and the Weatherization Assistance Program.
Virginia has also committed to improving the energy efficiency of existing state government buildings and adopting energy efficiency standards in new building design. The state has created grants and incentives for growing green jobs in alternative and renewable energy sectors such as biofuels and waste-to-energy facilities and is sponsoring cutting-edge research and development in alternate transportation fuels, nuclear technology, coastal energy production, and carbon capture and storage at state universities.
What Can Citizens Do?
Virginians can make consumer-choice and lifestyle
changes that yield significant improvements
in energy efficiency and conservation.
For example, homes can be retrofitted with more
energy-efficient materials and equipment, such
as attic and wall insulation, compact fluorescent
or LED light bulbs, hot water tank insulation,
and Energy Star appliances. Energy Star reports
that in 2008 alone, Americans saved enough energy
to avoid greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to
those from 29 million cars -- all while saving
$19 billion on their utility bills. Citizens can
also conserve energy by weatherizing their homes,
properly servicing HVAC equipment, and turning
off lights and appliances when not in use. Rebates
and financial assistance may be available for
those who take such initiatives (see at right).
Drivers can realize additional vehicle fuel economy by switching to hybrid vehicles, driving unaggressively and/or at lower speeds, using cruise control, avoiding excessive idling, keeping vehicles tuned up, and maintaining proper tire pressure.
Virginians can affect energy use even more by making broader lifestyle changes and investments. Choices in where to live and mode of transport can have a major impact. For instance, living in pedestrian- and bicycle-friendly mixed-use communities with public transportation options can significantly reduce energy use. Decisions about major purchases such as homes and automobiles are also opportunities to make substantial energy savings. Consumers can build or purchase smaller and/or more efficient houses that meet Energy Star, EarthCraft Home, or LEED standards. They can consider living closer to work and shopping for shorter commutes.
State rankings are ordered so that #1 is understood to be the best.
Data Definitions and Sources
U.S. Energy Information Adminstration
State Energy Data System (EDS)
Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923)
Renewables include: Geothermal, hydo convvenstional, solar, wind, wood/wood waste, MSW biogenic/landfill gas, and other biomass
State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2010
U.S. Energy Information Administration. Annual Energy Outlook. www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/index.html
Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy. Virginia Energy Plan.
See the Data Sources and Updates Calendar for a detailed list of the data resources used for indicator measures on Virginia Performs.