Traffic Congestion

Virginia country road

Traffic Congestion

Traffic congestion presents more than a headache for commuters; it has a negative impact on the delivery of goods and services and the general well-being of citizens. The Washington, D.C., metropolitan area has the nation's highest rate of congestion. The Hampton Roads area also experiences high levels of congestion.

Why is This Important?

The ability to move goods and people around the Commonwealth at relatively low cost is a substantial benefit for residents. But congestion increases these costs: Strained and congested roads eat up time and fuel; reduce worker productivity; exacerbate road and vehicle wear-and-tear; and increase driver stress, aggression, and certain kinds of vehicle accidents.

How is Virginia Doing?

Average Commute Time, by State.  See text for explanation.

Virginia's average commute time to work in 2015 was 28.2 minutes, another modest increase over previous years and the seventh highest in the nation. While considerably higher than North Carolina (24.3 minutes) and Tennessee (24.8 minutes), this average is lower than Maryland's 32.6 minutes. The national average rose to 26.4 minutes. Leading state North Dakota actually saw a drop in its commute length, with an average commute time of 16.6 minutes.

Longest Commute by Virginia Locality.  See text for explanation.

Use per lane mile has been increasing for decades; since the mid-1960s Virginia has experienced a decline in relative capacity as both population and state gross domestic product (GSP) have steadily risen.

The U.S. Census measures average commute time for 30 of Virginia's larger counties and cities each year. In 2015, the longest average commute times were all in the Northern region, with Fauquier County clocking in with commutes lasting 40.5 minutes; other NoVa localities ranged from 39.5 minutes to 31.7 minutes. At the other end of the spectrum, Lynchburg City (16.6 minutes) in the West Central region had the shortest commute time in the Census study.

Shortest Commute by Virginia Locality.  See text for explanation.

The Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) publishes congestion data for 101 urban areas across the country. In 2014, the metro area around Washington, D.C., was again the highest in the nation for average hours (82) of delay per traveler. Although delays due to congestion have generally been dropping modestly in the D.C. corridor since 2008, its level of congestion is considerably higher than any other region in Virginia -- and for urban areas in other states. Other metropolitan areas in the top 10 for congestion include Los Angeles and San Francisco in California; Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth in Texas; New York City-Newark, New Jersey; Seattle, Washington; and Boston, Massachusetts.

Although TTI rankings roughly correlate with area size, Richmond, VA, is notable for still having less congestion (an average of 44 hours of annual delay) compared to other cities in its size class.

Annual Hours of Traffic Delay, by MSA.  See text for explanation.

What Influences Traffic Congestion?

Road use, measured as vehicle miles traveled (VMT), has increased significantly over the past few decades, as a growing population and two-income households have led to increased car ownership, growth in low-density housing in suburbs and "exurbs," new roads, and a long-term trend toward lower real costs of personal transportation.

In the last two decades, the rate of increase in VMT has been much higher than the growth in overall road capacity. As a result, a higher number of road miles experience congestion and serious traffic jams, while some localities suffer from chronic congestion, especially during prime commuting hours. The costs of congestion have also risen -- lost wages, eroded productivity, and the increased cost of freight transport.

In Virginia, congestion problems are most serious in the Northern region close to Washington, D.C., and in the Hampton Roads region, where traffic is forced into bottlenecks at bridges and tunnels. Traffic congestion is also affected by cyclical changes in the volume of business activity. The 2007-2009 recession temporarily reversed congestion in most cities.

Other factors affect congestion levels:

  • population increases around existing roads
  • roads in disrepair
  • roads with construction work zones
  • tolls and other bottlenecks
  • the costs of using a road (e.g., non-HOV fees and other tolls)

Other factors beyond predictable "rush hour" delays also create traffic problems. More than half of all congestion is non-recurring – caused by crashes, disabled vehicles, adverse weather, special events, and other temporary disruptions to the transportation system.

What is the State's Role?

A number of strategies can help manage road congestion. The state can

  • expand capacity in congested areas
  • provide alternative transportation, such as public buses and commuter trains
  • charge for road use in a way that prices each driver's contribution to congestion
  • manage development patterns to reduce congestion growth

Virginia has traditionally relied on the first two methods for reducing congestion. The Northern Virginia area now has an extensive system of public buses and a more limited network of commuter trains -- efforts and investments that have slowed the increase and cost of congestion there.

According to the Texas Transportation Institute, the effect of public transportation improvements in the Washington, DC/Northern Virginia area has reduced the amount of delay by over 33.8 million hours. And annual congestion cost savings from public transportation for the Virginia Beach and Richmond areas are $33.2 million and $16.5 million, respectively.

Page last modified March 23, 2017
Average Commute by State Longest Commute by Locality, 2006 Shortest Commute by Locality, 2006 Annual Hours of Traffic Delay, by MSA

State rankings are ordered so that #1 is understood to be the best.

Data Definitions and Sources

Average Commute Time – U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey
(updated annually in September)

Texas Transportation Institute
(updated annually)

NOTE: For its 2011 Urban Mobility Report, the Texas Transportation Institute fully integrated INRIX real-time traffic data recorded at 15-minute intervals, including actual rush hour speeds -- rather than estimates. The resulting adjusted data has tended to smooth out some differences in congestion among the metropolitan areas tracked: Highly congested corridors, such as Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD had actual congestion levels below earlier estimates, while smaller metro areas (e.g., Charlotte, SC-NC and Richmond, VA) were shown to have more.

See the Data Sources and Updates Calendar for a detailed list of the data resources used for indicator measures on Virginia Performs.

At a Glance:
Traffic Congestion in Virginia

Performance Trend:  Trend is maintaining.
State Influence:  

National Ranking: In 2015 Virginia had the 7th highest average commute time in the nation (28.2 minutes). The Washington, D.C. metro area also suffers from the worst traffic delays in the U.S.

Virginia by Region: Congestion problems are most serious in the Northern region.

Related Agency Measures
State Programs & Initiatives

Fighting Congestion

A number of strategies are being employed to reduce congestion in the Commonwealth. They include:

Commuting 21st Century Style

AmTrak passenger service continues to expand in Virginia. Ridership is up everywhere, especially along the main north-south routes that take Virginians from Maine to Florida. Local service is also gaining traction in the state: A revival of direct passenger service for Norfolk residents debuted in late 2012. In 2013 a new connector line giving Roanoke residents access to Lynchburg rail service has proved to be equally popular, and direct passenger rail service for Roanoke is planned for sometime in 2016. These new, localized services are the result of partnerships between AmTrak, the Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation, and localities.

A new "DC to Richmond" segment of the Southeast High Speed Rail initiative aims to improve the frequency, reliability, and travel time of intercity passenger rail -- one that is also a competitive alternative to highway and air travel. Although still in the environmental study stage, project leaders hope to secure funding and begin improvements by 2020.

The Hampton Roads region has its own public transit: Their light rail system known as The Tide has transported well over 1,000,000 passengers since its completion in August 2011. The loop runs through 11 stations along a 7.4-mile stretch in Norfolk. Expanded service to Virginia Beach is being studied.

Ridesharing services like Uber and Lyft have become extremely popular in cities both large and small. Smartphone apps connect people looking for a ride with drivers willing to provide it, usually for a fee. Sidecar offers on-demand delivery services for business. And carsharing companies -- the most well-known is Zipcar -- allow customers across the country to rent a vehicle for an hourly rate (rather than a daily or weekly one).

VDOT's helpful 511 traveler information services provide the latest info -- via phone, smartphone, or Web -- on road closures, work zones, traffic incidents, and real-time traffic data from a score of roadway cameras.

Commuter Connections connects workers with carpools, while Telework!VA provides financial incentives and training for businesses to establish their own employee telework programs.